Hospitals are a complex Infrastructure, depending on the Specialities planned and the size of the hospital the space requirement changes. Hospital Facility can be grouped as, Clinical Spaces, Administrative Spaces & Utilities. Some of the Departments/ Spaces are listed below.
- OPD: Consultation rooms, Registration Counter, Public Utilities (toilet, drinking water, Waiting Area etc), Specialist OPD (eye, Ent), Procedure rooms (ortho, Dressing etc).
- Radiology & Imaging: X-ray, CT scan, MRI, USG/ Colour Doppler
- Pathology: Phlebotomy, Microbiology, Histopathology, etc,
- Pharmacy: OPD Pharmacy, IPD Pharma and Stores.
- Emergency: Ambulance receiving, Relatives waiting, triage, Minot OT, Observation beds, Duty doctor room, Nursing station etc.
- Day care and Procedures: IVF, Dialysis, chemotherapy, Eye OT, Dental OPD and Procedure.
- In Patient: Wards, Private room, Semiprivate and Deluxe rooms, Nursing station, toiles etc.
- Operation Theatre complex: Pre- Pot OP, Staff changing, Relatives waiting lounge, OT Consultation, CSSD, Operation theatre, Scrub etc. Zoning to be ensured.
- Intensive care: ICU Beds, Nursing station, Doctor Duty room, Store, Relatives waiting and consultation room.
- Neonatal Intensive Care, NICU: Level 3, TPN, Beds, NS, Duty Dr, Feeding rooms, Septic baby room, Nursery.
- Maternity: LDRP, Labour room, Nursery, OT in the OT complex can be used for C sec.
- Cath Lab: control, Procedure Room.
- Oncology: PET CT, Linear accelerator Bunker etc.
- Office: Accounts, HR, Insurance, SCM
- Stores: General, Bio-medical, Pharmacy, Maintenance
- Staff Areas: Changing, Dining
- Kitchen , Laundry
- Electrical Panel, UPS, Medical Gas & Vacuum room, Security and CCTV monitoring, Fire control room.
- Blood Bank: Component separation, Waiting Area, Registration Counter, Medical Examination, Donation Room, Refreshment room, Sterilisation cum washing, Store and Record, TDD etc.
This is list in not complete, based on the hospital size some of the spaces can be clubbed. Proper zoning and flow of man and material to be planned, to avoid chaos. Like Emergency Flow to be separated from OPD flow. Hospital Infra has to Focus around Patient Experience & Infection Control, Health infra is aspirational in nature and well build and maintained infrastructure increase patient experience. Hospital Façade (exterior looks) also plays an important role in patient aspirational needs. Along with Treatment services, hospital infra helps in building a strong brand image.
Utilities are complex in a hospital. Eg. for Electricity we should provide 3 separate wirings, 1. Grid power, 2. Generator Backed Power 3. UPS Backed power. All these types are in series with 1 backing 2 and 2 to 3. As it becomes very expensive to have a 100 % backup of Grid power to DG and then to 100 % UPS, separate wiring and circuits are designed. But ideally all can be back to back covered. For a 200 bed hospital 750 Kw of grid, 250 kw of DG and 150 kw of UPS should be sufficient. Higher power requirement lot depends on heavy machines like CT, MRI, Cath lab.
Similar type of complexity is there in Water (DM for Dialysis, RO water , General water), Sewage line going to STP and in some case treat and recirculate waste water. Central Oxygen and Vacuum line to be provide for all the critical beds and OT. Solar Water heating system is mandatory in some states.
Fire Detection and Prevention: to be installed keeping National Building Code provision in Mind, this has following components: Fire Hydrant System, Sprinkler System, UG Fire reservoir, OH Tank, Smoke detector, Fire alarm System, Public Address system, Fire Extinguishers.
Communication Systems: Telephone, LAN, CCTV, TV and Public-Address Systems.
Air, Temperature and humidity is controlled using either unitary Air Conditioners or central ducting systems. Air need to be sterilised as this is a major cause of infection, so either HEPA filers to be put in central ducted AHU or Air cleaners/ Sterilisers to be installed. OT’s should be provide with Laminar Air flow systems. Sufficient air changes to be planned as the air conditioners recirculate internal air. 8 air changes per hour in ward and 30 in OT is generally recommended.
Light, Sufficient natural light increases feeling of wellbeing. Artificial light of 300 Lux to be provided at all the working surface. LED lights decreased total cost of owner ship.